|Sagol Kangjei ( Polo )
Sagol Kangjei is the name of the game of polo played in Manipur. Sagol
means pony / horse, kang means a ball or round object, and jei
is a stick used for hitting. Polo has, for time immemorial, been a game
patronised by the royalty and the upper crust of society, not only in
India but abroad. However in the state of Manipur, it has always been a
game for the common man. It is a seven - a - side game, the players
mounted on ponies.
According to a renowned Sanskrit scholar, Pandit Sharma, Manipuri
polo goes back to the year 3100 B.C. Other Manipuri scholars trace the
game chronologically to many centuries before Christ ( 2000 - 1500 B.C.
), while some place it around 34 A.D. According to Kangjeiron Purana,
which is really the history of hockey in the state, polo was first
played in Manipur, and therefore, it got the name Sagol Kangjei - sagol
( horse ) and kangjei ( hockey ).
Manipuri polo symbolises the immense cultural heritage of the state,
and great efforts have been put made to raise the standard of this
popular game. The prominent patrons of the game were King Kyamba and
King Khagemba ( 1597-1672 A.D.), and King Chandra Kirti ( 1850 - 1886
A.D.). The latter, especially, is to be credited with popularising the
sport in other parts of the world.
How the game is played
Each player in Sagol Kangjei assumes a specific position on the
a) Pun - Ngak ( Full back )
b) Pun - Ngakchun ( Half back )
c) Pulluk ( Left wing )
d) Langjei ( Centre )
e) Pulluk ( Right wing )
f) Pun Jen ( Inner )
g) Pun - Jenchun ( Inner )
There are no goal posts in this game. Goal lines determine the end of
the two boundaries of the rectangular field. The ball ( kangdrum
) is white in colour. To score a goal the ball must cross the line.
The polo stick is made of cane or wood, and is called kang - hu.
It is 4 to 4 1/2 ft in length, and has a head of hard wood, a foot long,
which is set at an obtuse angle. The ball is made of bamboo root, with a
diameter of 3" to 3 1/2".
The traditional attire consists of a chin - strap ( khadangchet
) and a turban, for protecting the head. Leg - guards ( khongyom
) are worn below the knee. Since no shoes are worn, the players use khumit
- khang. A leash of thick leather is held by the index finger of the
left hand. This is a seasonal game, and is played in the Manipuri month
of Mera ( September / October ) and ends in the month of Ingen
( June / July ). There is no other country in the world, where hockey is
played on foot and horseback. It would not be wrong to say that Manipur
was forerunner of invention of hockey, which evolved out of constant
experiments with hockey on foot and horseback.